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  Culture
Quality in Digital Cinema
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In the first of this series of articles, I defined cinema as the art of presenting motion pictures. The term digital cinema simply means we are applying digital technology to the art. Cinematographers and studios demand a high quality level of their art when released to the cinema. However, the cinema is gradually becoming a place where more than motion pictures are shown. New forms of content termed alternative content, or specialized content, or electronic advertising are finding their way into the cinema. These new forms of cinema content are not always as demanding of quality as motion pictures. The...

 Michael Karagosian
Is A Digital Cinema Rollout Eminent?
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Every so often, and certainly more often than is reported in the press, one hears that a new group or entity is planning to roll out digital cinema. Sometimes these announcements are timed for trade shows, where the proponents can make a big splash. Sometimes these announcements are timed for the release of a movie. The release of Star Wars: Episode II in April of 2002 got a lot of attention in the US press in the producer's quest to show the movie on digital cinema screens. Those who have seen a movie digitally, or heard of cinemas buying digital...

 Michael Karagosian
Projection Technology in Digital Cinema
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Technology has clearly advanced to the point to where electronically projected images can replace the venerable 35mm film projector. However, 'can' is not necessarily an indication that it 'will' replace film anytime soon. As has been pointed out in this series of articles, the number of obstacles that stand in the way of a world-wide rollout of digital cinema are not few. Certainly, the high cost of the projector is among these, providing a pillar of encouragement for those with potentially low cost projection technology. The projector of choice today for digital cinema trial systems is based on the Texas...

 Michael Karagosian
Digital Rights In Digital Cinema
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We've heard about Napster and the growing need to protect music copyrights in the Internet age. Of course, no one interested in preserving the primacy of theatrical release wants to see a movie pop up on the Internet while that movie is still playing in cinemas. Obviously, there is a very real need to secure movie content, particularly in digital form. Digital movies, in a twist that is both ironic and fortunate, are easier to secure than their celluloid counterparts. However, if not checked, the same systems that provide security could also negatively impact the operation of the exhibition business....

 Michael Karagosian
The Cheerleaders Collection
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For nearly a century, the cheerleader has represented a distinct and eye-catching slice of Americana. Stereotypically portrayed as equal parts sensuality and youthful innocence, the image of the high school cheerleader has long-exemplified America's ambivalence toward sex and sexuality -- living examples of both Puritan morality ("the innocent girl next door") and uninhibited sexual prowess ("cleavage, buns and poms"). But it wasn't until the 1970s that film directors realized they could cash in on audiences' fascination with America's sideline sweethearts....

 Paul Armentano
The Complete History of the Discovery of Cinematography - Part 2 - A Brief History of Pre Cinema
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Cinematography is defined simply as the illusion of movement by projecting in rapid fashion, many still pictures. Also known as motion pictures, movies or moving pictures, cinematography is a product of nineteenth century ingenuity and experimentation. Motion pictures came to be as the result of numerous other inventions. A large segment of the discoverers came from the new field of photography. Many more came from those who worked with magic lanterns. Some were interested in projecting images, and then others...

The Complete History of the Discovery of Cinematography - Part 3 - A Brief History of Pre Cinema
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In English this theatrical phenomenon was known as the Phantasmagoria. There were as many professionals at it as there were itinerant travelling showmen with their lanterns. One of the original and most elaborate of them all was E'tienne Gaspard Robert. He later changed his name to Robertson. His demonstrations of the lantern were slick theatrical productions designed and performed to scare people to death. Aparitions, ghosts and the like would appear from nowhere and literally frighten patrons from their seats....

Traditional Japanese Music - The Christian Era and Tokugawa (1549-1867)
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The shakuhachi is a kind of bamboo recorder with a blowing edge and four fingerholes; it has a generally appealing mellow tone. It is naturally curved, long, thick, low-pitched, and resonant. It naturally produces the notes of D, F, G, A, D. There are four types of biwa, or bass lutes: Gaku-biwa, Heike-biwa, moso-biwa, and Satsuma-biwa. The Heike-biwa is smaller than the Gaku-biwa; it has four strings and 5 frets. The moso-biwa is the smallest of the bass lutes; it...

Traditional Japanese Music after the Meiji Restoration
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After the restoration, Western music in Japan developed through two ways: the military and the educational system. From 1869 on, the Satsuma army band was trained by the British John William Fenton. Also, Western music was extensively introduced into the educational systems in an attempt to modernize. Now, all styles of Western music are enjoyed in Japan - chamber music, choruses, brass bands, opera, ballet, and pop are just a few examples. The Japanese general public first began to have...

The Complete History of the Discovery of Cinematography - Part 4 - Motion Study Analysis and Commercialization
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By 1877 the increased speed of photographic emulsions and improved camera shutters made it possible to photograph rapid motions. Pioneers such as Muybridge and Marey were interested in motion rather than in photography. Their combined studies and experimentation's in stop-action series photography and motion study analysis have led to wonderful inventions within modern times. To study the gait of a running horse, Eadweard Muybridge, an English born book-seller turned photographer, set up on a racetrack in California a row of...

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