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Gymnastics 6. Gymnastics Becomes Competitive
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Competitive gymnastics originated with the Turners. They had two types of competition at their period Turnerfests: Events in which the result was based on a qualitative measure, such as the number of times a competitor could chin himself on the horizontal bar in a given period; and those in which subjective judging was required. The most important contest was the Zwolfkampf, in which athletes competed in twelve events from gymnastics and track and field. The first international meet was held in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1880, for teams from Belgium, England, France, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Russia, Switzerland and the United States....

Artistic gymnastics: Compulsories
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Before 1997, the team competition was structured differently. It still consisted of two sessions. However, gymnasts performed compulsory exercises in the preliminaries and their optional routines on the second day. The team medals were awarded on the combined scores of both days. All-around and event final qualifiers were also determined according to the combined scores. The optionals were the gymnasts' personal routines, developed with their coaches to adhere to the requirements of the Code of Points. They were performed in the team finals, the all-around and the event finals. The compulsories were routines that were developed and choreographed by the...

Gymnastics 7. International Competition
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Gymnastics was one of nine sports on the program of the first modern Olympics, at Athens in 1896. There was team and individual competition on the horizontal bars and the parallel bars, with individual competition only on the pommel horse, rings, vault, and rope climbing. In 1900, there was only one event, the men's all-around, which included weightlifting, the pole vault, long jump, rope climb, and the combined long jump and high jump. The first world championships, held at Antwerp in 1903, included a hodge-podge of 26 events. Among them were compulsory exercises without apparatus, optional and compulsory exercises on...

Artistic gymnastics: Age limits
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The FIG imposes a minimum age limit on gymnasts competing in international meets. The term senior, in gymnastics, refers to any world-class/elite gymnast who is age-eligible under FIG rules. Currently, gymnasts must be at least sixteen years of age, or turning sixteen within the calendar year to compete in senior-level events. The one exception to this rule is the year before the Olympics, when gymnasts who are one year shy of the age requirement may compete at the Worlds and other meets. For instance, gymnasts born in 1988 were allowed to compete in senior events in 2003. This is permitted...

Gymnastics 8. Competitive Gymnastics in the U. S.
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The Amateur Athletic Union staged the first national gymnastics championships in 1897. For many years, Turner organizations dominated the competition, but other athletic clubs then began to emerge. Eventually, YMCAs and colleges also became involved in competitive gymnastics. National competition for women was added in 1931 and the NCAA inaugurated its national championship for men in 1938. The first NCAA championship meet for women was held in April of 1982. The United States won most of the medals at the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis, but that was because almost all of the competitors were American. Frank Kriz was a...

Artistic gymnastics: Scoring and the Code of Points
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Scoring at the international level is regulated by the Code of Points. At the elite level there is a panel of judges; the score is the average of the panel's marks with the highest and lowest scores thrown out. Under the new Code of Points there will be two different panels judging every routine, evaulating different aspects of the performance. Before 2006, every routine was assigned a Start Value (SV). A routine with maximum SV performed perfectly was worth a 10.0. A A routine with all required elements was automatically given a base SV (9.4 in 1996; 9.0 in 1997;...

Gymnastics 9. The Current State of Gymnastics
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Although the Eastern European countries are still forces to be reckoned with in international gymnastics, they no longer dominate the sport as they once did. More and more nations are producing world-class gymnasts. Since 1984, China has emerged as a major gymnastics power, but several other countries have also produced medal-winners. At the 1996 Olympics, 12 different countries claimed medals, including Greece, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and Korea. Russia and China took the bulk of the medals in 2000, but France won two, its first since 1972, and Spain won its first ever gymnastics medal when Gervasio Deferr took the gold...

History of Rhythmic Gymnastics
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Rhythmic gymnastics combines ballet and creative movements to music, while working with ribbons, balls, hoops, ropes and clubs in a choreographed dance-and-tumble routine. It has a lot more dance than artistic gymnastics. Everything is done on the floor with far different routines and different music. There are two kinds of gymnastics: rhythmic gymnastics and artistic gymnastics. The kind of gymnastics most of us are familiar with is artistic gymnastics. Women's artistic gymnastics includes uneven bars, balance beam, vault and floor exercise. The kind of gymnastics I am going to talk about is rhythmic gymnastics which includes ball, hoop, ribbon, rope,...

 Reyna Chan
History of Basketball
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Dr. James Naismith is known world-wide as the inventor of basketball. He was born in 1861 in Ramsay township, near Almonte, Ontario, Canada. The concept of basketball was born from Naismith's school days in the area where he played a simple child's game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his one-room schoolhouse. The game involved attempting to knock a "duck" off the top of a large rock by tossing another rock at it. Naismith went on to attend McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. After serving as McGill's Athletic Director, James Naismith moved on to the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts,...

History of the billiardsports
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Billiards knows a rich history. Kings, commoners, presidents, insanes, ladies, gentlemen and maybe criminals, have been playing the game. The Game has its origin in Northern Europe, probably France, where it was played as an outdoor game in the 15th century. Due to weather conditions the game moved indoors on a wooden table, which was dressed with a green carpet, to ressemble grass, and a slat around the sides. The balls where pushed instead of punched with a wooden stick. The name Billiards probably comes from two French words "bille" from ball and "art" from arts. The English also claim...