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Žemės kilmė

2003-01-06 | Daugelį amžių astronomijos atradimai skatino žmogaus vaizduotę. Ypač sunku buvo atsisakyti plokščios Žemės įvaizdžio ir patikėti, kad ji – rutulys, kurį galima apiplaukti. Iš tiesų, tiesioginių Žemės rutuliškumo įrodymų galima gauti tik mūsų laikais, stebint Žemę vizualiai arba fotografuojant iš aukštai skrendančių lėktuvų ir dirbtinių palydovų. Mintis, kad Žemė nėra Visatos centras, ypač jaudino žmonių protus XVI-XVIII a. Jau Aristotelis IV amžiuje prieš mūsų erą ir K. Ptolemėjas II amžiuje tvirtino, kad Žemė yra dangaus kūnų sistemos centras. Pagal K. Ptolemėjo pasaulio modelį kiekviena planeta judėjo mažu apskritimu (epiciklu), o jo centras didesne orbita (deferentu) skriejo aplink Žemę. 14 amžių astronomai pripažino tik šią teoriją.

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Žemė Visatoje

2003-01-06 | Žmogus - Žemės planetos kūdikis. Jo atsiradimas ir raida priklausė nuo mūsų Žemės įvykių, o šie - nuo Visatos veiksnių. Mums atrodo, kad sistemoje Visata-Žemė-Žmogus svarbiausia vieta priklauso mums. Tačiau žinios apie Žemę rodo, kad planeta su visomis savo geosferomis yra labai sudėtingai organizuota, bet vientisa sistema. Ją palaiko energijos ir medžiagų dinaminė pusiausvyra. Ji nėra labai griežta, būna svyravimų ir nukrypimų. Žemės kitimai geologinėje praeityje vyko dėsningai, ritmiškai ir cikliškai. Vieni jų vyko ramiai, kiti šuoliškai ir katastrofiškai. Šių kitimų priežastys buvo įvairios. Tačiau nėra abejonės, kad jos buvo susijusios su Visatos, Saulės sistemos ir Žemės raida. Jos tiesiogiai veikė ir veikia žmogų, jo evoliuciją ir pažangą. Tie kitimai laiko atžvilgiu formavo reiškinių ritmus ir ciklus, o erdvėje - tam tikrą geografinę įvairovę.

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Christmas

2003-01-06 | Maybe one of most excited holidays. Everyone likes Christmas and Christmas Eve - some because they shouldn’t work, some - because they get a lot of beautiful presents. In Lithuania everyone celebrates Christmas together with their families. But it’s not like that in other countries. For example, in Belgium Christmas are celebrated mostly by young people - they go to the coffees, to the towns, discos. It’s like New Year in Lithuania. Actually, a Christian feast commemorates the birth of Jesus. This feast is celebrated on the 25th of December. The name ‘Christmas’ came from middle English Cristemas, from Old English Crìstes mæsse, Christ's festival. In the Christian calendar, it ranks after EASTER, PENTECOST, and EPIPHANY in liturgical importance and was not widespread until the 4th cent. The customs of the caroling, mistletoe, and gifts at Christmas are English. Elsewhere, gifts are given at other times, as at Epiphany in Spain. Christmas cards appeared c.1846. The concept of a jolly Santa Claus was first made popular in 19th-cent. New York City. The Christmas tree was a medieval German tradition. Midnight Mass is a familiar religious observance among Roman Catholics and some Protestants.

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Mike Shayne. Marked for murder

2003-01-06 | This is about Mike’s Shayne’s (he was a private detective)cases and adventures.The book is one of the collection of stories about Mike’s Shayne’s job. The first time this book was published in 1968 and I think that action goes on at sixties. The story begins in the office of the Courier-one of the biggest newspaper in Miami. Young journalist Timothy Rourke investigated one case of the three murders (for the newspaper of course). He hadn’t good relations with police and especially with the chief of police Peter Painter. So Rourke rummaged by his own methods:he looked for information everywhere, aspecially on the street. Timothy Rourke suspected one of the richiest and influential man in Miami who had few clubs-casinos. So Timothy Rourke was writing about that for a week. He made a big and very sharp stuff about events during that week in the city. He scold police because no arrests had been made. Rourke warned citizens about the crime wave which could flood the city anytime, anyday. He named some suspects which held high posts.

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Christopher Columbus

2003-01-06 | Christopher Columbus was an Italian, the son of a poor weaver. He was born in 1451 in Genoa, an Italian seaport. At that time Genoa was one of the richest cities in the world. Genoese merchants travelled all over Europe to sell silks, coral, fruit and other things and Genoese seamen sailed the merhant ships not only in the Mediterranean but on other seas too. In the middle of the 15th century much of the world was still unexplored, and most European countries were eager to find and lay claim to new territory and thus become rich. Consequently there was much fighting on the seas. The Mediterranean galleyswere constantly passing in and out of the port of Genoa to load or unload cargoes. Their hardly crews had often been engaged in dangerous adventures and their fine and graceful ships were in a battered condition, and the seamen had plenty of exciting stories to tell little Christopher Columbus.

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Class life

2003-01-06 | Autumn for students is necessarily related with school. To some this relation reminds of time spent the best possible way but to some it is the most horrible thing. I myself don’t long for school so much as I do for my classmates. That is easily explained: we’ve already spent nine years together (that isn’t aimed for all the students). During this big period of time we somehow sifted those whom we can trust, those who we can rely upon and those whom we should better leave alone. Now the school: for me it won’t be just a simple building that can be seen through my window. It’ll be a dungeon that must be destroyed or maybe it’ll be a second place that my soul will visit after death. I actually never could make up my mind do I love my school or do I hate it, maybe time will tell.

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Centralized world

2003-01-06 | Now we live in the age of information. Latest technologies develop every day and even every minute. It is very important for us. Now we can find the needed person in a very short time using e-mail, mobile technologies, paging system and others. Maybe the most important of them is Internet. It started in 1960 when some governmental organizations in US wanted to connect their systems in a very reliable net, that couldn’t be affected by war. Later it developed and now we have a big computer network all over the world. And as we have so many new technologies that are used to improve communication process we are talking about such scientific term as global village. There are no not accessible places in the world. So the distances now seem not to be so big like it looked hundred years ago. Then we can talk about centralized world. We can access almost every countries data base and know everything about it. We can talk to different people in teleconferencies as if we were sitting in one room. And that makes the world small.

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Tony Blair

2003-01-06 | Blair began his political career in 1983, when he was elected to Parliament as a member of the Labour Party. He quickly advanced to the party’s front ranks during the Conservative administration of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990), when Labour was the major opposition party. He was favored by Labour leaders Neil Kinnock and John Smith; they believed his more moderate positions would appeal to British voters, who, beginning in the 1979 general elections, had started to turn away from Labour and its pro-trade union policies. From 1984 to 1987 Blair was opposition spokesman on treasury and economic affairs. He then moved to various posts in the Departments of Trade and Industry (1987), Energy (1988-1989), and Employment (1989-1992). In 1992 he was promoted again, taking charge of domestic issues in the Labour Party’s counterpart to the governing Conservatives’ cabinet.
After party leader John Smith died in May 1994, Blair was chosen to take his place. Almost immediately, Blair began working to make the party more mainstream, lessening its dependence on labor and trade unions and broadening the party’s membership. In 1995 and 1996 the “New Labour” party, as Blair called it, rapidly gained in popularity, while at the same time a long economic recession and several scandals drastically reduced support for the Conservatives.

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Britain customs

2003-01-06 | In the winter months (December, Januar and February) Britain’s vibrant cities provide a wealth of entertainment. You can spend hours in splendid art galleries and museums or escape from the cold with a visit to the theatre, ballet or opera. Winter is a peaceful time for exploring historic town and pictureque villages. Enjoy an envigorating walk in wind and rain knowing a friendly welcome awaits you in old country pubs, where you can warm yourself in front of a roaring log fire and savour a hearty stew or scotch broth. There is a buzz in the air as Christmas approaches. Fairy lights and brightly decorated tree illuminate streets, carols ring out from cathedrals and children anxiously await the arrival of Father Christmas. Visitors can enjoi a traditional Christmas at many hotels and sample festive fare from turkey to mince pies and plum pudding. New Year’s Eve is night of merry – making throughout the land particularly in Scotland. Festivities in the Grampian village of Stonehaved inclube ‘Swinging the Fireball’s, a spectacular start to the year! On Shrove Tuesday pancakes are tossed and eaten in many British homes. Olney in Buckinghamshire, stage one of the most famuos pancake races and in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, the customary Shrovetide football match takes place on a pitch with goal post three miles apart!

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Autumn

2003-01-06 | Autumn is the most melancholy season of the year. When we see the nature languish before the long cold period of winter we somehow feel the same and our mood takes a turn for the worse. Actually I don’t think that the autumn is disliked for that, I think the main reason is that the biggest part of this season people will have to stay at home, because of the bad weather. This year we had luck, as the weather was just perfect. We still can enjoy the last warm rays of the sun; we don’t see heaps of colored leaves. In my humble opinion every season is indispensable to realize how much better are the other seasons of the year. No mater what after autumn will come winter and after winter must come spring the only thing left for us is to wait.

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